what is noun?





What is a noun?

 Noun: A word which identifies a person, place or thing, or names is called nown.


Nouns can be classified into five kinds: 

1. Proper nouns
2. Common nouns
3. Collective nouns
4. Material nouns
5. Abstract nouns


Proper nouns: A proper noun is the name of a particular person or thing, i.e. a name used for an individual person or place, river, or mountain, etc.: Mary, Rahul, Godavari, India, Everest.

Common nouns: The common noun refers to any and every person or thing of the same kind or class, not to a particular person or thing: cow, dog, girl, boy, man, woman.

Common nouns
Proper nouns 
girl
Latha 
dog               
Rover 
man               
Rover 

Collective nouns: The
 collective noun is the name of a collection, group of people, or things of the same kind: class, team, government jury, federation 

Material nouns: The material noun is the name of a material, substance, or ingredient things are made of. They could be articles of food or drink as well: iron, copper, steel, gold, coal, silver, rice, wheat, milk, water, tea, sugar 
Note: The material noun is a type of common noun but a distinction is made between the two. The common noun is usually a countable noun but a material noun is an uncountable noun. 
The cow gives us milk. 
a Cow is a common noun (countable), but milk is a material noun (uncountable).

Abstract nouns: An abstracts noun is the name of a quality, state, or concept: 
beauty, sweetness, childhood, love 
Note: The Concrete nouns are names of material things, i.e. things having a material form, shape and size. The Abstract nouns are the names of qualities found in various kinds of objects. Since they have no material form, they couldn't be seen or touched. We Could know of them only through our mind: 
Concrete nouns
Abstract nouns 
sugar           
sweetness 
book             
beauty 
milk             
hatred 
Patna           
fear 
We can see sugar but cannot see sweetness, so sugar is a concrete noun and sweetness an abstract noun. In short, concrete nouns refer to physical properties and abstract nouns to mental properties.

Countability Noun:-
Nouns are of two kinds from the viewpoint of countability: 
a) Countable nouns 
b) Uncountable nouns

a) Countable nouns: Nouns that can be counted are called 
countable nouns: 
a book   
one book   
two books 
an egg
one egg
two eggs

Generally the noun used in answer to the question how many? is a countable noun: 
How many films did you watch?
I watched six films. 
How many flights are there from here to Delhi? 
There are only two flights. 
Note: Common nouns and collective nouns are by and large countable.

b) Uncountable nouns: Nouns that cannot be counted are called uncountable nouns:
(milk, water, ink, sugar, a milk, one water, two sugar) 
A noun used in answer to the question how much? is an uncountable noun When we want to refer to the quantity of these items we use values of measurement which are countable:
How much milk do you need?
We need a litre of milk.
Note:
a) Material nouns and abstract nouns are uncountable. So are proper nouns, though they can be used as countable nouns in special situations: There are two Indias, the rural and the urban

b) Certain nouns can be used both as countable and uncountable depending on the context.
Uncountable                     
I prefer chicken to fish.           
Petrol catches fire easily          

Countable:
These chickens are lovely.
Shall we make a fire out here

Gender noun:-

Gender is of four kinds:
·        Masculine (denotes male)
·        Feminine (denotes female)
·        Common (denotes both male and female)
·        Neuter (denotes neither male nor female)

Masculine
Feminine
Common
Neuter
Boy
Girl
Student
Gold
Man
Women
Teacher
Rice
Brother
Sister
Doctor
Flower
Uncle
Aunt
Child
River
Bull
Cow
Diploma
Table
Note: A words masculine and feminine can be used as adjectives to describe the looks or qualities of human beings. In this sense masculine means: having the characteristics of a man, so it can be used of a woman or girl as well.

The lady standing in the center has masculine looks. 
Similarly with feminine. Notice that in this sense the masculine/feminine indicates characteristics or attributes, not any sex.

Masculine and feminine forms:- 
The feminine of nouns is formed in two ways: 
·        by adding ess to masculine form

actor     
actoress 
lion     
lioness
baron     
Baroness       
master   
mistress
count/earl
Countess          
murderer 
murderess
duke     
Duchess           
priest    
priestess
god       
Goddess           
prince   
princess
heir     
heiress           
shepherd 
shepherdess
host     
hostess           
tiger     
tigress
hunter   
huntress          
waiter   
waitress

Note

a) The English has only a small number of feminine forms (noun + ess).  

The Professional activities are often referred to in the common gender.

A feminine forms authoress, poetess, directress, inspectress are no longer in uses.

1. She is the director of this institute. (not, directress)
2. She is an inspector of police. (not, inspectress) 

b) The feminine form of a hero is a heroine. 


·        By adding she/girl/woman

he-goat 
she-goat 
boy-friend        
girl-friend 
student           
woman student 
businessman       
businesswoman 
policeman         
policewoman
sportsman         
sportswoman 
salesman         
saleswoman 
statesman         
stateswoman 

But in many cases, feminine form is not derived from masculine form. In the examples listed below, feminine form is a totally new word, not related to masculine form phonetically.

bachelor
maid/spinster
gander
goose 
boar
sow
gentleman
lady 
boy 
girl
hart
roe
brother   
sister              
horse    
mare 
buck   
doe
husband 
wife 
bull/ox 
cow                 
lord   
lady  
bullock 
heifer              
man   
woman 
cock   
hen                 
nephew 
niece 
colt     
filIy               
sir     
madam  
dog   
bitch               
stag   
hind 
drake 
duck                
uncle     
aunt 
drone 
bee                 
wizard   
witch 
father   
mother              
fox     
vixen 
friar/monk
nun                 
mon/dual 
gender 


Common/dual-gender

1) The Nouns denoting profession Most of the nouns denoting profession/occupation are in the common gender: 

ambassador     
collector      
secretary
minister       
poet           
foreigner
artisan        
cook           
servant
monarch        
politician     
friend    
artist         
cousin         
singer
monitor        
president      
infant    
artiste        
criminal       
speaker
musician       
principal      
judge    
author         
dancer         
student
neighbour      
doctor    
lawyer    
baby           
pupil
teacher
novelist       
editor    
lecturer  
captain        
reader
typist
orphan         
enemy    
librarian
child          
relation
worker
person         
engineer  
magician  
clerk          
scientist
writer
player         
fool      
professor


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