Present Perfect Tense rules with example

Present Perfect Tense
Tense This Tense is used to express those actions that have been finished recently
Affirmative
Subject
+ Has/Have
+ base + v3
She
has
Gone.
Negative
Subject
+Has/Have+not
+ base + v3
I/She
Have/Has not
Gone.
Interrogative
Have/Has
Subject
+ base + v3
Have/Has
I/She
Gone.
Interrogative- Negative

Have/Has
Subject+not
+ base + v3
Have/Has
I/She+not
Gone.
Structure
For singular:
=>Sub + has + V3 + Obj (Affirmative)
For Ex - She has bought a house.
=>Sub + has not + V3 + Obj (Negative)
For Ex - She has not bought a house.
=>Has + Sub +V3 + Obj'?' (Interrogative)
For Ex - Has she bought a house?
=>Has + Sub + not + V3 + Obj + “?” (Interrogative - Negative)
For Ex - Has she not bought a house?
For Plural:
=> Sub + have + V3 + Obj. (Affirmative)
For Ex - They have completed their work.
=>Sub + have not + V3 + Obj (Negative)
For Ex - They have not completed their work
=>Have + Sub + V3 + Obj'?' (Interrogative)
For Ex - Have they completed their work?
=>Have + Sub + not + V3 + Obj? (Interrogative - Negative)
For Ex - Have they not completed their work?
Note: “I” is used as Plural in this type of Tense
For Ex - I have submitted my assignment
Uses:
1. To show the action that has just ended
For Ex
(a) I have written a letter
(b) Ishan has gone to Mumbai.
2. In sentences which consist the following:
"This/That/It is the first/second/third/best/worst".
For Ex –
(a) This is the worst novel. I have ever read.
(b) It is the best book. I have ever read.
3. To show those sentences which have the following words.
For Ex-
(a) I have already taken my lunch
(b) Have you ever been to London?
Note: Generally, Present Perfect Tense does not take an adverb of Past time.
For Ex- I have seen Amit yesterday is wrong
=>Simple past is used when an adverb of past is mentioned.
Therefore, the correct usage of sentence given above should be as follows:
“I saw Amit yesterday.”

Some present perfect sentences:
1. I have seen this girl somewhere before.

2. He has seen the Taj at Agra twice.

3. They have gone to Mumbai once.

4. Many people have died of sunstroke.

5. Gambling has ruined many careers.

6. My brother has returned from Kanpur presently.

7. I have not finished my work so far.

8. Have you not taken your breakfast as yet ?

9. I have known her for seven years.

10. I have not seen him since Monday last.

11. Have we not lived here for ten years ?

12. Sushma has eaten all the bananas. (There are not any left for you)

13. Manorama has gone out. (Her house is locked)

14. It has rained during the night. (The ground is wet).
Prectice exercise
1. He ............. (spend) all his in the service of the poor.
2. No one ............(heard) about subhash for more than fifity years.
3. Why ............she not ............(show) her homework as yet?
4. We ...........(see) the taj only twice.
5. Hari ............(rob) his brother many times.
6. Our sister ................(boil) rise.
7. The maid ........... still not ........... (clean) my room.
8. ...........your father not yet ...........(return) from office?
9. Who ............(beat) this child ?
10. Where ............the theif ............. (hide) himself ?

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